Oveela Jewelry

Opal: Recognizing and Understanding Opals

Introduction to Opal

Opal, also known as Opal, has been circulating on the European continent since 100 B.C. When the Greeks were confronted with this fantastic and extraordinary gemstone, they used a new synthetic word to describe it: Opallions, which means seeing  transformations. Since Opal was always produced in Europe in very small quantities (now in the Czech Republic), Byzantine traders deliberately referred to it as Opalus from the East, which is where the English word opal comes from.

Opal with colorful light flame, is recognized as the world’s most beautiful gemstone, known as “set the beauty of gemstones in one”. It has the ruby’s gorgeous, amethyst of the noble, emerald  of the elegant, sapphire’s stability, bright and charming colors make countless people fall in love with it. Since ancient times, Opal has been sought after by people because of its changing and fascinating colors. Its beautiful color change is like a seven-color dream, giving people a magical reverie. People use Opal as the October birthstone and the 14th wedding anniversary commemorative gemstone, which means the stone of hope and happiness. In Europe, Opal is considered a representative of good fortune. The ancient Romans called it “Cupid’s beautiful boy”, symbolizing hope and purity.

Common Opal Varieties

  1. Precious Opal: This is the most valuable type of opal and is characterized by its play-of-color. Precious opal can exhibit a wide range of colors, and its value is determined by factors such as the intensity, pattern, and variety of colors.

  2. Common Opal: Unlike precious opal, common opal does not display play-of-color. It comes in a variety of colors, but its value is primarily based on factors like color, transparency, and overall quality.

  3. Fire Opal: Fire opal is known for its vivid orange to red colors. It may or may not display play-of-color. The intensity of the orange and red hues is the key factor in determining the value of fire opals.

  4. Black Opal: Black opal is a type of precious opal that has a dark body color, often black or dark gray. The play-of-color in black opals tends to stand out more vividly against the dark background, making them highly prized.

  5. White Opal: White opal has a light or white body color and can exhibit a play-of-color similar to precious opal. The colors may be more subdued compared to black opal, but white opals are still valued for their beauty.

  6. Boulder Opal: Boulder opal is found in combination with ironstone. The opal forms in thin layers within the cracks and crevices of the ironstone, creating unique patterns. The ironstone is often left on the back of the opal, adding to its natural appearance.

  7. Crystal Opal: Crystal opal is transparent to semi-transparent and has a play-of-color. The body of crystal opal can be colorless or have a faint color, allowing the play-of-color to be more visible.

  8. Jelly Opal: Jelly opal is a translucent to opaque type of opal with a jelly-like appearance. It may or may not display play-of-color, and its name is derived from its gelatinous appearance.

Formation of Opals

  1. Formation in Sedimentary Rocks:

    • Opals often form in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale.
    • Silica-rich water seeps through the rock, carrying dissolved silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is the primary component of opals.
  2. Interaction with Silica Gel:

    • As the silica-rich water moves through the rock, it fills cracks and cavities.
    • Over time, this water evaporates or loses its silica content, leaving behind a gel-like substance composed of tiny silica spheres.
  3. Play-of-Color Formation:

    • The unique play-of-color in opals is a result of the interference and diffraction of light caused by the silica spheres.
    • The size and arrangement of these spheres determine the colors visible in the play-of-color phenomenon.

Composition of Opals:

  1. Silicon Dioxide (SiO2):

    • Opals are primarily composed of silicon dioxide, the same mineral that makes up quartz.
    • In opals, the silica is amorphous, meaning it does not have a crystalline structure, contributing to the gemstone’s unique properties.
  2. Water Content:

    • Opals contain water, typically ranging from 3% to 21% by weight.
    • The water content is crucial to the opal’s play-of-color, and variations in water content can affect the appearance of the gem.
  3. Microstructure:

    • Opals have a unique microstructure consisting of microscopic silica spheres arranged in a regular or irregular pattern.
    • The size and arrangement of these spheres determine the play-of-color characteristics.
  4. Trace Elements:

    • Opals may contain trace elements such as iron, manganese, and carbon, which can influence the gem’s color.
    • Iron oxides can contribute to the red, orange, and brown colors seen in some opals.

Types of Opals Based on Composition:

  1. Precious Opal:

    • Contains a significant amount of water and exhibits play-of-color.
  2. Common Opal:

    • Lacks the play-of-color phenomenon and has a lower water content compared to precious opal.
  3. Fire Opal:

    • Characterized by its vivid orange to red colors and lower water content compared to precious opal.

Opal Colors and Characteristics

Opals are renowned for their vibrant play-of-color, and their colors can range across the entire spectrum. The unique display of colors is influenced by various factors, including the type of opal, the arrangement of silica spheres, and the presence of trace elements. Here are some key opal colors and characteristics:

  1. Play-of-Color:

    • The most distinctive feature of opals is their play-of-color, which is the vibrant and iridescent display of colors that can change with the viewing angle.
    • The play-of-color is a result of the diffraction and interference of light as it passes through the microscopic silica spheres within the opal.
  2. Multicolor Displays:

    • Opals can exhibit a wide range of colors, including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
    • Some opals display a multitude of colors simultaneously, creating a mesmerizing and dynamic appearance.
  3. Body Color:

    • The body color of an opal refers to the base color of the gemstone when the play-of-color is not present.
    • Opals can have various body colors, including white, black, gray, and crystal clear.
  4. Black Opals:

    • Black opals have a dark body color, often black or dark gray, which enhances the visibility of the play-of-color.
    • The dark background provides a striking contrast, making the colors appear more vivid.
  5. White Opals:

    • White opals have a light or white body color, and their play-of-color can range from subtle pastels to more vivid hues.
    • The white background allows for a softer and more delicate display of colors.
  6. Crystal Opals:

    • Crystal opals are transparent to semi-transparent with a play-of-color. The body color can be colorless or have a faint hue.
    • The transparency of crystal opals allows for a clear view of the play-of-color within the gemstone.
  7. Fire Opals:

    • Fire opals are known for their intense orange to red colors, often resembling the fiery glow of sunset.
    • While fire opals may not always exhibit play-of-color, their warm and vivid hues make them highly sought after.
  8. Boulder Opals:

    • Boulder opals, found in combination with ironstone, can have a variety of colors. The ironstone matrix adds natural patterns and textures to the gem.
  9. Jelly Opals:

    • Jelly opals are translucent to opaque with a gel-like appearance. They may display play-of-color, and their body color can range from light to dark.
  10. Color Variations:

    • The intensity, pattern, and distribution of colors within an opal can vary, contributing to the uniqueness of each gemstone.
Australia Opal Raw

Geological Sig

The most famous source of Opal is Australia, with 95% of the world’s best quality Opal produced in this beautiful country. In addition, Mexico, Africa, Brazil, the United States also have production.

People see from different angles Opal different colors of the phenomenon known as “color”, the more color, the more beautiful color block, Opal  the higher value. Opal body color has black, blue, green, brown, orange, orange-red, red, etc., according to the different background color, people divided Opal  into black Opal , fire Opal, white Opal crystalline Opal , and so on, the same variegation, the deeper the background color, the higher the value. The deeper the color, the more valuable it is, because the deeper the color, the more the delicate variegation is reflected.

The market price of high quality black Opal can reach tens of thousands of dollars per carat, and demand still exceeds supply. The finest quality is found in the Lightning Ridge of Australia.


Australia Opal Region

 Global Opal Deposits

Opals can be found in various locations around the world, and they are often associated with specific geological conditions. Some of the notable global opal deposits include:


  • Australia:

    • Australia is the world’s leading producer of opals, known for its high-quality gemstones. Opals are found in various states, with significant deposits in areas such as:
      • Coober Pedy: Known as the “Opal Capital of the World,” Coober Pedy in South Australia is famous for its white and crystal opals.
      • Lightning Ridge: Located in New South Wales, Lightning Ridge is renowned for its black opals, considered some of the rarest and most valuable.
  • Ethiopia:

    • Ethiopia has become a notable source of opals in recent years. The Wollo Province, particularly around Wegel Tena, is known for producing high-quality and vibrant opals.
  • Mexico:

    • Mexico is another significant opal-producing country. Fire opals, known for their intense orange to red colors, are found in places like Querétaro and Jalisco.
  • Brazil:

    • Brazil produces opals, particularly in the states of Piauí and Goiás. Brazilian opals are known for their variety of colors.
  • United States:

    • Opals can be found in several locations in the U.S., including Nevada, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Nevada, in particular, has opal mines such as Virgin Valley, known for its black fire opals.

2. Famous Opal Mining Locations:

  • Coober Pedy, Australia:

    • Coober Pedy is one of the most famous opal mining locations globally. It is known for its unique underground mining operations, as miners often live in homes dug into the hillsides to escape the extreme desert heat.
  • Lightning Ridge, Australia:

    • Lightning Ridge is renowned for its black opals. The mining fields around Lightning Ridge have produced some of the most valuable and beautiful opals in the world.
  • Wegel Tena, Ethiopia:

    • Wegel Tena in the Wollo Province of Ethiopia has gained recognition for producing high-quality and vivid opals. The opals from this region are often referred to as “Welo opals.”
  • Querétaro and Jalisco, Mexico:

    • Mexico, particularly in the states of Querétaro and Jalisco, is known for its fire opals. These opals are valued for their warm and fiery colors.
  • Virgin Valley, Nevada, USA:

    • Virgin Valley in Nevada is famous for its black fire opals. The region has been a source of unique and valuable opals for many years.

 Crafting Opal Jewelry

Crafting opal jewelry involves a combination of artistic design, skillful workmanship, and the unique characteristics of opals. Here’s an overview of the process and considerations when crafting opal jewelry

  • Selecting the Opal:

    • Jewelers carefully choose opals based on factors such as color, play-of-color intensity, size, and overall quality.
    • Opals with vibrant play-of-color are often preferred for their captivating visual appeal.
  • Designing the Jewelry:

    • Jewelry designers create sketches or digital designs to plan the layout and arrangement of opals within a piece.
    • Considerations include the type of opal (black, white, crystal, etc.), the shape of the gemstone, and any additional gemstones or metals that may complement the opal.
  • Setting the Opal:

    • Opals can be set in various ways, such as prong settings, bezel settings, or channel settings, depending on the design and the jeweler’s preferences.
    • Care is taken to protect opals from damage during the setting process, as they can be more delicate compared to some other gemstones.
  • Combining with Other Gemstones or Metals:

    • Opals are often combined with other gemstones or metals to enhance the overall design.
    • Complementary gemstones might include diamonds, sapphires, or other colored gemstones, while metals like gold or silver can be chosen based on the desired aesthetic.
  • Consideration for Opal Care:

    • Opals require special care to prevent damage. They are softer and more sensitive to temperature changes compared to some other gemstones.
    • Jewelry designers and buyers need to be aware of proper care practices, including avoiding exposure to extreme heat, chemicals, and sudden temperature changes.
  • Customization:

    • Many opal jewelry pieces are custom-designed to meet the preferences and style of the wearer.
    • Customization allows for a personalized touch, ensuring that the jewelry piece is unique and meaningful.

Popular Opal Jewelry Designs

  • Opal Rings:

    • Opal rings are popular for their versatility. They can feature a single opal as the centerpiece or incorporate multiple opals in a cluster or halo design.
  • Opal Necklaces and Pendants:

    • Opal necklaces often showcase a single opal pendant or a series of opals along a chain. The pendant design can vary, ranging from simple solitaires to intricate and artistic arrangements.
  • Opal Earrings:

    • Opal earrings come in various styles, including studs, drop earrings, and hoops. The choice of earring design depends on the size and shape of the opals, as well as the wearer’s preferences.
  • Opal Bracelets:

    • Opal bracelets can feature a line of opals set in a row or be part of a more elaborate design. Opal beads or cabochons may also be incorporated into bracelet designs.
  • Vintage and Art Nouveau Styles:

    • Opals are often featured in vintage and Art Nouveau jewelry designs. These styles may include intricate filigree work, floral motifs, and delicate settings that highlight the ethereal beauty of opals.
  • Bohemian and Modern Designs:

    • Bohemian and modern jewelry designs often embrace the free-spirited and contemporary nature of opals. This can include asymmetrical arrangements, unconventional settings, and a mix of textures and materials.

Cleaning and Maintenance Tips for Opals:

Opals are unique gemstones that require special care to maintain their beauty and prevent damage. Here are some cleaning and maintenance tips for opals:

  • Gentle Cleaning:

    • Clean opal jewelry with a soft, damp cloth to remove dirt and oils. Avoid abrasive materials or harsh chemicals that can scratch or damage the opal’s surface.
  • Mild Soap Solution:

    • If necessary, use a mild soap solution (diluted in warm water) to clean opals. Gently wipe the surface with a soft brush or cloth, ensuring not to submerge the jewelry for an extended period.
  • Avoid Ultrasonic Cleaners:

    • Opals are sensitive to sudden temperature changes and can be affected by vibrations. Avoid using ultrasonic cleaners, as they may cause the opal to crack or become damaged.
  • Keep Away from Harsh Chemicals:

    • Avoid exposing opals to harsh chemicals, including household cleaners, perfumes, and hairsprays. Chemicals can degrade the opal’s surface and affect its play-of-color.
  • Avoid Extreme Temperatures:

    • Opals are sensitive to extreme temperature changes. Avoid exposing them to sudden temperature variations, such as hot water or direct sunlight, as this can lead to cracking.
  • Store Separately:

    • When storing opal jewelry, keep it separate from other gemstones or metals to prevent scratching. Consider placing opals in a soft pouch or lined jewelry box.
  • Regular Inspections:

    • Periodically inspect opal settings for loose prongs or any signs of wear. If adjustments are needed, consult a professional jeweler to avoid damaging the opal during repairs.
  • Professional Cleaning:

    • For a more thorough cleaning, consider taking opal jewelry to a professional jeweler who specializes in handling delicate gemstones. They can clean and inspect the piece professionally.

Avoiding Common Opal Jewelry Mistakes:

  • Exposure to Harsh Environments:

    • Avoid wearing opal jewelry during activities that expose it to harsh environments, such as sports, heavy labor, or activities with potential impact.
  • Neglecting Regular Inspections:

    • Regularly inspect opal jewelry for any signs of damage or loose settings. Promptly address any issues to prevent further damage.
  • Sleeping or Showering with Opals:

    • Remove opal jewelry before sleeping or showering. Submerging opals in water for extended periods can lead to damage, and exposure to chemicals in personal care products may affect their appearance.
  • Ignoring Professional Advice:

    • If you have specific concerns or questions about opal care, seek advice from a professional jeweler. They can provide guidance tailored to your specific piece.
  • Storing Improperly:

    • Store opal jewelry in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and extreme temperatures. Proper storage helps prevent environmental damage and ensures the longevity of the opals.

Cultural Beliefs Surrounding Opals:

Opals have been surrounded by various cultural beliefs, symbolism, and folklore throughout history. Here are some cultural aspects associated with opals:

  • Positive Symbolism:

    • Luck and Happiness: In many cultures, opals are considered symbols of good luck and happiness. This is particularly true for those who believe in the positive influence of the gemstone.

    • Creativity and Inspiration: Opals are often associated with creativity and inspiration. Some believe that wearing opal jewelry can enhance artistic abilities and stimulate imagination.

  • Birthstone and Zodiac Associations:

    • Opals are the birthstone for October and are associated with individuals born in this month. They are also linked to the zodiac sign Libra (September 23 to October 22).
  • Emotional Healing:

    • Opals are sometimes believed to have emotional and spiritual healing properties. They are thought to help with emotional balance, releasing negative energies, and promoting a sense of inner peace.
  • Cultural Significance:

    • In Aboriginal Australian culture, opals are considered sacred and believed to have been formed during a rainbow’s descent to the earth. The opal is seen as a symbol of creation, transformation, and connection to the spiritual world.
  • Love and Passion:

    • Opals have been associated with love and passion. Some believe that opals can intensify emotions and enhance the bond between romantic partners.

Opal Superstitions:

  • Superstitions Surrounding Black Opals:

    • While opals, in general, are considered lucky by many, there have been historical superstitions specifically regarding black opals. Some people believed that black opals brought bad luck, associating them with dark and mysterious forces.
  • Myth of the “Cursed Opal”:

    • A popular superstition, often perpetuated in literature and folklore, is the “cursed opal” myth. It is said that opals bring bad luck to individuals who are not born in October. This belief has been debunked, but it has contributed to superstitions surrounding opals.
  • Fear of Opals in the Theater:

    • In the past, there were superstitions in the theater industry that opals should not be worn on stage, as they were believed to bring bad luck to actors. This superstition may have contributed to the negative perception of opals in some cultures.
  • Breaking the Superstition:

    • To counteract negative superstitions, some believe that opals must be gifted rather than purchased for oneself. It is said that receiving an opal as a gift breaks the potential bad luck associated with the gem.

Embracing the Beauty of Opals

In conclusion, opals are truly enchanting gemstones that captivate with their unique play-of-color and stunning beauty. Embraced across cultures for their positive symbolism, opals represent luck, happiness, creativity, and emotional healing. While historical superstitions have surrounded opals, modern perceptions focus more on the gemstone’s inherent allure.

From the vast opal deposits in Australia to emerging sources like Ethiopia and longstanding locations like Mexico and Brazil, opals continue to be cherished for their diverse colors and characteristics. Crafting opal jewelry involves a careful balance of design, setting, and maintaining the gemstone’s delicate nature.

As we appreciate the cultural beliefs and symbolism associated with opals, it’s evident that these gemstones hold a special place in the hearts of many. Whether worn as birthstone jewelry, embraced for their artistic influence, or gifted as a symbol of love and happiness, opals remain timeless and continue to be celebrated in the world of gemstones.


Enjoy 10% Off

Your First Order

Shopping cart close